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Etna, the Forge of Hephaestus – Etna, la fucina di Efesto
by Francesco Pappalardo.

This really is a fantastic photographer guide recently posted by this great photographer and flickr friend cicciofarmaco.

This book is an accumulation of the most wonderful photographs for the Etna volcano paroxysmal eruptions of 2011. As you care able to see, Francesco has an all natural skill in photography along with his work is undoubtedly inspirational, so through this guide you’ll stay again many spectacular and fascinating moments of the eruptions for the Etna volcano of 2011.

Get this magnificent Photography book easily on line through this website link Etna, la fucina di Efesto. by Francesco Pappalardo and enjoy these historic occasions of nature permanently.

====================================================================

Mount Etna
Mount Etna, also called Muncibe??u in Sicilian and Mongibello in Italian, a combination of Latin mons and Arabic gibel, both meaning mountain) is a working stratovolcano from the east shore of Sicily, near to Messina and Catania. Its Arabic name ended up being Jebel Utlamat (the hill of Fire). It’s the 2nd biggest energetic volcano in European countries, currently standing 3,329 metres (10,922 ft) large, though this varies with summit eruptions; the mountain is 21 m (69 ft) reduced now than it was in 1981. This is the greatest mountain in Italy south of Alps. Etna covers an area of 1,190 km² (460 sq mi) with a basal circumference of 140 km. This makes it undoubtedly the largest of three active volcanoes in Italy, being about two and a half times the level of this after that biggest, Mount Vesuvius. Just Mount Teide in Tenerife surpasses it when you look at the entire associated with the European region (though geographically Tenerife is an island of Africa).

Mount Etna the most energetic volcanoes in the world and is in a practically constant state of eruption. Additionally, it is considered to be the world’s earliest active volcano. The fertile volcanic grounds support substantial agriculture, with vineyards and orchards distribute throughout the lower slopes of this mountain and broad Plain of Catania towards the south. Due to its history of current task and nearby population, Mount Etna happens to be designated a Decade Volcano because of the un.

Geological history
Volcanic task at Etna began approximately half a million years ago, with eruptions happening under the ocean off the coast of Sicily. 300,000 years ago, volcanism began occurring towards southwest for the present-day summit, before task relocated towards current center 170,000 years ago. Eruptions at this time built up the initial major volcanic edifice, forming a strato-volcano in alternating volatile and effusive eruptions. The development associated with mountain was occasionally interrupted by major eruptions leading to the failure for the summit to create calderas.
Etna seen from Place Satellite.

From about 35,000 to 15,000 years ago, Etna experienced some extremely explosive eruptions, creating large pyroclastic flows which left extensive ignimbrite deposits. Ash from the eruptions has been discovered as far as Rome, 800 kilometer toward north.
A crater nearby the Torre del Filosofo, about 450 metres below Etna’s summit.

Thousands of years ago, the eastern flank for the mountain practiced a catastrophic failure, producing an enormous landslide in an event much like that observed in the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. The landslide left a large despair in the side of the volcano, called ‘Valle del Bove’ (Valley of the Ox). Analysis published in 2006 suggests that this took place around 6000 BC, and caused a massive tsunami which left its mark in lot of locations when you look at the east Mediterranean. It might happen the reason why the settlement of Atlit Yam (Israel), today below sea level, ended up being all of a sudden abandoned around that point.

The high wall space for the Valley have suffered subsequent collapse on many occasions. The strata exposed within the area wall space provide a significant and simply obtainable record of Etna’s eruptive history.

The most up-to-date collapse event at the summit of Etna is thought to own occurred about 2,000 years ago, creating what is known as the Piano Caldera. This caldera has-been practically totally filled by subsequent lava eruptions, it is however visible as a definite break-in the pitch associated with the hill near the root of the present-day summit cone.

Historical eruptions
Eruptions of Etna aren’t the same. Some occur on summit, where there are currently (at the time of 2008) four distinct craters – the Northeast Crater, the Voragine, the Bocca Nuova, and also the Southeast Crater. Other eruptions happen on flanks, where there are more than 300 ports, ranging in proportions from tiny holes inside surface to large craters hundreds of meters across. Summit eruptions is extremely explosive and tend to be acutely dazzling, but they are hardly ever threatening when it comes to inhabited places across the volcano. Quite the opposite, flank eruptions may appear down to a few hundred yards altitude, near or even well in the populated areas. Numerous villages and small towns lie around or on cones of previous flank eruptions. Considering that the 12 months 1600 A.D., there have been at the very least 60 flank eruptions and countless summit eruptions; nearly half of these have happened because the beginning of the twentieth century, as well as the 3rd millennium has actually seen five flank eruptions of Etna thus far, in 2001, 2002-2003, 2004-2005,2007 and 2008.

The very first recognized record of an eruption at Etna is of Diodorus Siculus.

The Roman poet Virgil offered that which was most likely a first-hand description of an eruption inside Aeneid:
“ Portus abdominal accessu ventorum immotus et ingens ipse; sed horrificis iuxta tonat Aetna ruinis; interdumque atram prorumpit advertisement aethera nubem, turbine fumantem piceo et candente favilla, attollitque globos flammarum et sidera lambit; interdum scopulos avolsaque viscera montis erigit eructans, liquefactaque saxa sub auras sperm gemitu glomerat, fundoque exaestuat imo. (3.39)

“ a spreading bay will there be, impregnable to all or any invading storms; and Aetna’s throat With roar of frightful ruin thunders nigh. Today into realm of light it lifts a cloud Of pitch-black, whirling smoke, and fiery dust, Shooting out globes of flame, with monster tongues That lick the movie stars; now huge crags of itself, out from the bowels of the hill torn, Its maw disgorges, whilst molten stone Rolls screaming skyward; through the nether deep The fathomless abyss tends to make ebb and movement.

In 396 BC, an eruption of Etna is believed to have thwarted the Carthaginians in their make an effort to advance on Syracuse through the very first Sicilian War.

An especially violent volatile (Plinian) summit eruption occurred in 122 BC, and caused hefty tephra falls into southeast, including the city of Catania, where lots of roofs folded. To support reconstruction and dealing with the devastating ramifications of the eruption, the Roman government exempted the people of Catania from paying fees for 10 years.

Current eruptions
Etna’s 2002 eruption, photographed from ISS.
Same, noticed in a larger area.
Etna’s south east crater 2006 eruption, photographed from Torre del Filosofo.

Another huge lava movement from an eruption in 1928 generated the initial (and just) destruction of a populace center considering that the 1669 eruption. The eruption started at the top of Etna’s northeast flank on 2 November, then brand-new eruptive fissures opened at ever reduced height along the flank of volcano. The next & most energetic of these fissures started later on 4 November at abnormally low level (1200 m above the sea-level), in a zone called Ripe della Naca. The town of Mascali, lying downslope of this Ripe della Naca, was obliterated in only 2 days, aided by the lava destroying almost every building. Just a church and a few surrounding structures survived in the north an element of the town, called Sant’Antonino or “il quartiere”. During the last times of the eruption, the flow interrupted the Messina-Catania railway range and destroyed the train station of Mascali. The function had been used by Benito Mussolini’s Fascist regime for propaganda functions, aided by the evacuation, aid and rebuilding businesses being presented as different types of fascist preparation. Mascali ended up being rebuilt on a site, and its chapel offers the Italian fascist logo of torch, put over the statue of Jesus Christ. At the beginning of November 2008, the town of Mascali commemorated the 80th anniversary associated with eruption and destruction of the town with some community manifestations and conferences, where, and others, still living eyewitnesses of eruptions recalled their impressions of the experience.

Other major 20th-century eruptions occurred in 1949, 1971, 1981, 1983 and 1991-1993. In 1971, lava buried the Etna Observatory (integrated the late 19th century), destroyed the very first generation of the Etna cable-car, and really threatened a few little villages on Etna’s eastern flank. In March 1981, the city of Randazzo on the northwestern flank of Etna narrowly escaped from destruction by abnormally fast-moving lava moves – that eruption ended up being remarkably like the certainly one of 1928 that destroyed Mascali. The 1991-1993 eruption saw the town of Zafferana threatened by a lava flow, but successful diversion attempts conserved town utilizing the loss in only 1 building a hundred or so metres through the town’s margin. Initially, such efforts contains the construction of planet obstacles built perpendicularly on movement way; it absolutely was hoped your eruption would stop before the synthetic basins created behind the barriers is totally filled. Rather, the eruption proceeded, and lava surmounted the barriers, going straight toward Zafferana. It had been then decided to utilize explosives close to the way to obtain the lava flow, to disrupt a really efficient lava tube system whereby the lava traveled for 7 km without really losing temperature and fluidity. The key surge on 23 might 1992 destroyed the lava pipe and pushed the lava into a new synthetic channel, far from Zafferana, also it would have taken months to re-establish a long lava pipe. Soon after the blasting, the rate of lava emission dropped and through the rest associated with eruption (until 30 March 1993) the lava never advanced level close to the town once again.

After six years (1995-2001) of abnormally intense activity during the four summit craters of Etna, the volcano produced its first flank eruption since 1991-1993 in July-August 2001. This eruption, which involved task from seven distinct eruptive fissures mostly in the south pitch associated with volcano, was a mass-media eruption, as it occurred within level for the visitor season and numerous reporters and journalists had been already in Italy to cover the G8 summit in Genoa. In addition happened close to one of several tourist places in the volcano, and therefore ended up being easily accessible. The main “Etna Sud” traveler area, like the arrival station of the Etna cable car, were harmed by this eruption, which otherwise was an extremely modest-sized occasion for Etna criteria.

In 2002-2003, a much larger eruption tossed up a large line of ash might quickly be observed from room and dropped as a long way away as Libya, 600 km south throughout the mediterranean and beyond. Seismic task in this eruption caused the east flanks associated with the volcano to slip by around two metres, and several homes regarding flanks of volcano experienced structural damage. The eruption also totally destroyed the traveler station Piano Provenzana, in the northeastern flank regarding the volcano, and area of the tourist station “Etna Spud” across the Rifugio Sapienza from the south flank. Video footage from eruptions was taped by Lucasfilm and integrated into the landscape regarding the world Mustafar inside 2005 film celebrity Wars Episode III: payback for the Sith. The Rifugio Sapienza is nearby the website of a cable automobile station which had previously been destroyed in the 1983 eruption; it’s now already been reconstructed.
Etna’s Sept. 2007 eruption as seen from southeast crater ridgeline.

Following a fairly silent, sluggish and non-destructive lava outflow in the upper southeastern flank between September 2004 and March 2005, intense eruptions occurred in the Southeast Crater in July-December 2006. These were accompanied by four symptoms of lava fountaining, again in the Southeast Crater, on 29 March, 11 April, 29 April and 7 might 2007. Ash emissions and Strombolian explosions began from a vent on eastern side of the Southeast Crater in mid-August 2007.
Home ruined by lava regarding mountains of Etna.

On 4 September 2007 Etna violently erupted at around 8:00 p.m. neighborhood time, spewing lava as much as 400 m to the air alongside powerful winds that sent ash and smoke in to the underlying towns. This Southeast Crater eruption ended up being noticeable far in to the plains of Sicily, ending these early morning between your hours of 5 to 7 am regional time. Catania-Fontanarossa Airport power down businesses throughout the night for safety precautions. A similar paroxysm took place at night time of 23-24 November 2007, lasting for 6 hours and causing ash and lapilli falls to your north regarding the volcano. Once more, the foundation associated with the activity had been the Southeast Crater. Following several months of very minor task from the Southeast Crater and flurries of seismic activity particularly in the eastern sector associated with hill, an innovative new effective eruptive paroxysm happened in the belated mid-day of 10 might 2008. Due to bad weather, it had been not possible to see most of the game in the vent, but a number of branches of lava traveled down the east flank of the volcano, to the Valle del Bove despair. This latest paroxysm lasted about 4 hours, ending regarding night of 10 might 2008.

A new eruption began on the early morning of 13 might 2008 straight away towards the eastern of Etna’s summit craters, associated with a-swarm greater than 200 earthquakes and considerable floor deformation in the summit location. In the mid-day of the identical day, a fresh eruptive fissure started at about 2800 m above sea-level, with many ports displaying Strombolian activity and emission of lava moves toward the Valle del Bove. During the following 24 hours the lava traveled about 6 kilometer towards east, but after that its advance slowed and stopped, the essential remote lava fronts stagnating about 3 km from nearest town, Milo. Ash emissions became much more regular between 16 and 18 might and produced tiny but spectacular clouds, whereas the price of lava emission showed a gradual diminution. During belated May additionally the first few days of June, the activity proceeded at low levels, with lava flows advancing only some hundred yards from vents at the time of 4 Summer. Four days later, on 8 June, there was clearly a considerable escalation in the vitality of Strombolian task and lava production rate. During following few days, lava moves higher level up to 5 kilometer through the origin ports. In June and July, the eruption continued with moderate Strombolian activity from two vents at about 2800 m elevation, and lava advancing around 4 kilometer eastward, staying confined into Valle del Bove failure depression. Task in mid-July produced loud detonations which were really audible in numerous population centers around the volcano. In late-July, volatile task waned, but lava emission carried on at a reasonably low-rate, feeding quick lava flows that advanced level little more than 1 km.

On 13 November 2008, six months after its onset, the 2008 flank eruption of Etna had been continuing, at a somewhat low rate, and it also hence became the longest associated with the four flank eruptions of Etna so far in the 3rd millennium. Past eruptions, in 2001, 2002-2003, and 2004-2005 had lasted 3 weeks, three months, and 6 months, respectively.

Uncommon traits

Inside 1970s Etna erupted smoke rings, one of the first captured activities of the type, which can be incredibly unusual. This happened once more in 2000.

Monte Etna
L’Etna (Mungibeddu o semplicemente ‘a Muntagna in siciliano) è un vulcano attivo che si trova sulla costa orientale della Sicilia, tra Catania e Messina. È il vulcano attivo più alto del continente europeo[1] age uno dei maggiori al mondo. Los angeles sua altezza varia nel tempo a causa delle sue eruzioni, ma si aggira attualmente sui 3.340 m. s.l.m. Il suo diametro è di circa 45 chilometri.
Un tempo era noto anche come Mongibello.

Leggende
A proposito del dio Eolo, il re dei venti, si diceva che avesse imprigionato i venti sotto le caverne dell’Etna. Secondo il poeta Eschilo, il gigante Tifone fu confinato nell’Etna e fu motivo di eruzioni. Un altro gigante, Encelado, si ribellò contro gli dei, venne ucciso e fu bruciato nell’Etna. Su Efesto o Vulcano, dio del fuoco e della metallurgia age fabbro degli dei, venne detto di aver avuto la sua fucina sotto l’Etna e di aver domato il demone del fuoco Adranos age di averlo guidato fuori dalla montagna, mentre i Ciclopi vi tenevano un’officina di forgiatura nella quale producevano le saette usate come armi da Zeus. Si supponeva che il mondo dei morti greco, Tartaro, fosse situato sotto l’Etna.

Su Empedocle, un importante filosofo presocratico age uomo politico greco del V secolo a.C., venne detto che si buttò nel cratere del vulcano, anche se in realtà sembra che sia morto in Grecia. Si dice che quando l’Etna eruttò nel 252, un anno dopo il martirio di Santa Agata, il popolo di Catania prese il velo rosso della Santa, rimasto intatto dalle fiamme del suo martirio, e né invocò il nome. Si dice che a seguito di ciò l’eruzione finì age che per questo motivo i devoti invocano il suo nome contro il fuoco e lampi.

Secondo una leggenda inglese l’anima della regina Elisabetta I d’Inghilterra ora risiede nell’Etna, a causa di un patto che lei fece col diavolo in cambio del suo aiuto durante il suo regno.

Turismo e ambiente
Il territorio del vulcano è tutto un mondo di ambienti differenti per morfologia e tipologia. Coltivato fino ai mille metri s.l.m. e fortemente urbanizzato sui versanti est age sud si presenta selvaggio e brullo soprattutto dal lato ovest dove dai mille metri in poi predominano le "sciare", specie nella zona di Bronte. Poco urbanizzato, ma di aspetto più dolce il versante nord con il predominio dei boschi al di sopra di Linguaglossa. Il versante est è dominato dall’aspetto inquietante della Valle del Bove sui margini della quale si inerpicano i fitti boschi. Al di sopra dei 1000 m, in inverno, è presente la neve che spesso dura fin quasi all’estate. Questa è raggiungibile agevolmente dai versanti sud age nord. Di conseguenza sull’Etna si trovavano anche because of stazioni sciistiche la cui particolarità è quella di poter sciare sulla neve potendo osservare il mare. Da quella Sud del Rifugio Sapienza, nel territorio di Nicolosi, è possibile ammirare tutto il golfo di Catania e la valle del Simeto. Nelle piste a Nord, quelle di Piano Provenzana in territorio di Linguaglossa, lo situation che si apre d’innanzi comprende Taormina age le coste della Calabria. Le piste di Nicolosi sono condition danneggiate dall’eruzione dell’estate del 2001, quando una colata lavica ha distrutto la stazione d’arrivo della funivia ed il centro servizi passando a pochi metri dallo stesso "Rifugio Sapienza". Le piste di Piano Provenzana sono state colpite dalla colata dell’Autunno del 2002.
L’Etna visto da sud in autunno

Negli anni settanta del XX secolo le piste del versante sud,Nicolosi, sono condition protagoniste della "Tre giorni Internazionale dell’Etna" gara di sci alpino che vedeva alla partenza i grandi nomi dello sci alla good delle gare della coppa del mondo. Poi con il passare degli anni e con l’avvento del professionismo esasperato in tutte le discipline sportive, questa gara non ha più avuto luogo.

L’Etna è anche meta ininterrotta delle visite di turisti interessati al vulcano age alle sue manifestazioni in virtù del fatto che è uno dei pochi vulcani attivi al mondo ad essere a portata di mano di chiunque avendo a supporto ogni tipo di mezzo di comunicazione per raggiungerlo. Sono presenti infatti anche guide specializzate e mezzi fuoristrada che in sicurezza portano fino ai crateri sommitali. Il circondario ha caratteristiche che ne rendono le terre ottime per produzioni agricole, grazie alla particolare fertilità dei detriti vulcanici. La zona abitata giunge fino ai 1000 m.s.l.m. mentre le area coltivate age boschive vanno fin oltre i 1500 metri. Ampie parti delle sue pendici sono comprese nell’omonimo parco naturale che è meta di turisti amanti della natura age di un sano relax.

Volcan Etna
El Etna (37°45.304?N 14°59.715?E? / ?37.755067, 14.99525) es un volcán activo en la costa este de Sicilia, entre las provincias de Messina y Catania. Tiene alrededor de 3.322 metros de altura, a pesar de que ésta varía gracias a las constantes erupciones. La montaña es hoy en día 21,6 metros menor que en 1865. Es el gran volcán activo de Europa y la montaña más alta de Italia al sur de los Alpes. El Etna cubre un área de 1.190 km2, con una circunferencia basal de 140 kilómetros.

Hasta inicios de s XX, por lo menos, period frecuente que la población siciliana llamara Gibellu a este célebre volcán; tal denominación local deriva de la presencia árabe en el lugar durante la edad media. En efecto, Gibellu o Gibello deriva de la palabra árabe ??? ?ébel (monte, montaña). Aún en 2005, se llama en Sicilia Gibello o Mongibelo a la montaña; quedando la denominación Etna para poder el cono volcánico.

En la mitología griega, el Etna age el volcán en cuyo interior se situaban las fraguas de Hefesto, que trabajaba en compañía de cíclopes y gigantes. El monstruoso Tifón yacía debajo de esta montaña, lo que causaba frecuentes terremotos y erupciones de humo y lava.

Su nombre derivaba de la ninfa Etna, hija del gigante Briareo y de Cimopolia, o de Urano y Gea, que se convirtió en la deidad de este famoso volcán. Por ello, fue la juez que resolvió la disputa sobre la posesión de Sicilia entre Deméter y Hefestos.

Uniéndose con éste último fue madre de los pálicos, los 2 dioses de sendos géiseres famosos en la isla.

Haciendo abstracción de la mitología, el nombre deriva de la palabra cananea (o del fenicio) attanu (arder) y luego de la griega aithos (con el mismo significado de arder). Durante la ocupación árabe de Sicilia en la Edad Media, el Etna fue llamado ?ébel Uhamat (Montaña de Fuego), pasando a ser llamado durante siglos por gran parte de los italianos con la palabra mixta (románica-arábiga): Mongibello.

El Etna es uno de los volcanes más activos del mundo, y está casi en constante erupción. Aunque en ocasiones puede ser muy destructivo, no está contemplado como un volcán particularmente peligroso y miles de personas viven en sus alrededores e incluso en sus faldas. La fertilidad de los angeles tierra volcánica hace que los angeles agricultura extensiva, con viñas y huertos, se extiende a lo largo de las laderas de la montaña. Gracias a la reciente actividad volcánica y a su población, el Etna ha sido designado como uno de los 16 volcanes de la década por las Naciones Unidas.

etna vulcan vulcano volcan catania katane sicily sicilia italy italia europe europa eu nature landscape writer michael castielli no-cost permit creative commons high res copyright laws patent wallpaper graphical design disegno brand-new sky vacation viaje viaggio travel getaway vacanze vacaciones vacation web site internet italia italy wallpaper gnuckx castielli innovative commons zero cc0 cc news notizie facebook bebo panoramio flickr google googleearth googlemaps maps high qualiy photo gallery photo pic pictures geotag geotagged gps locale wiki wikipedia

Image from page 69 of “Collier’s brand new encyclopedia : a loose-leaf and self-revising research work … with 515 pictures and ninety-six maps” (1921)
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Title: Collier’s brand new encyclopedia : a loose-leaf and self-revising guide work … with 515 pictures and ninety-six maps
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Subjects: Encyclopedias and dictionaries
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Text Appearing Before Image:
, after 5 years more of effort,that they made a trip in public places. Butsuch development travels quickly, and the worldof technology and creation had been immenselystirred by what had been permitted to beknown. a school of passionate ex-perimenters sprang up in France, andpractical results were shortly shown byBleriot, Farnani, Delagrange and others,who through the use of what they had learnedof the task of the Wrights, constructedmachines that made real flights. The more load it is in a position to carry. Themonoplane has actually severe speed because ofits lightness and can rise more readilythan others, but its management de-mands proficiency and involves even more haz-ardous risks. Its unexcelled for sport orracing, but its incapacity to carry heavyloads detracts from the useful worth.The biplane can adapt itself to almostany circumstances of air and weather condition, andits energy and carrying ability havemade it the most famous kind. Thetriplane can be as yet little used, nonetheless it canbe depended upon as a cargo and passen-

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A CURTISS FLYING-BOAT initially officially taped European aero-plane flight was created by Santos-Dumontin 1906. He flew a distance of 700 feet,remaining floating around for 21 moments. In1907 Farnam flew 2,500 foot in 52.5seconds. In 1909, Bleriot crossed theEnglish Channel from Calais to Doverin 37 minutes. In 1908, the Wrightbrothers visited France making flightsof several hours extent. They wereshowered with awards by the FrenchGovernment and folks. From that timeon the art of traveling took its location as an.Tiportant aspect in the globes life andprogress. When it comes to armed forces history anduses of aeroplanes, see Aviation in theWorld War, the following. You can find three leading types of planesin basic usage. The monoplane, as itsname implies, features one airplane area; thebiplane has two, one over the other, andis the most typical; the triplanehas three, and its own value is based on the ger service due to its strength. Acombination of aeroplane and motorboat isthe hydroaeroplane, that will navigateeither ele

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Italy-Etna – Etna Volcano – innovative Commons by gnuckx
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Etna, the Forge of Hephaestus – Etna, la fucina di Efesto
by Francesco Pappalardo.

That is a great photographer book recently posted by this excellent professional photographer and flickr buddy cicciofarmaco.

This guide is a collection of the most amazing pictures regarding the Etna volcano paroxysmal eruptions of 2011. As you can see, Francesco features a normal talent in photography and his work is undoubtedly inspirational, therefore through this book you are able to live once again the absolute most dazzling and fascinating moments regarding the eruptions associated with the Etna volcano of 2011.

Purchase this magnificent photographer guide effortlessly on the web through this website link Etna, la fucina di Efesto. by Francesco Pappalardo and enjoy these historical activities of nature permanently.

====================================================================

Mount Etna
Mount Etna, also called Muncibe??u in Sicilian and Mongibello in Italian, a mixture of Latin mons and Arabic gibel, both meaning hill) is an active stratovolcano on east coastline of Sicily, near to Messina and Catania. Its Arabic name was Jebel Utlamat (the Mountain of Fire). It will be the second biggest active volcano in Europe, currently standing 3,329 metres (10,922 ft) high, though this differs with summit eruptions; the hill is 21 m (69 ft) reduced today than it absolutely was in 1981. It’s the greatest hill in Italy south associated with the Alps. Etna covers a location of 1,190 km² (460 sq mi) with a basal circumference of 140 kilometer. This will make it definitely the greatest for the three energetic volcanoes in Italy, being about two-and-a-half times the height of next biggest, Mount Vesuvius. Just Mount Teide in Tenerife surpasses it in entire for the European area (though geographically Tenerife is an island of Africa).

Mount Etna the most energetic volcanoes in the field and is in a nearly consistant state of eruption. Furthermore considered to be the world’s earliest energetic volcano. The fertile volcanic soils support considerable agriculture, with vineyards and orchards distribute throughout the reduced mountains of this hill and the wide Plain of Catania to the south. Because of its history of present task and nearby population, Mount Etna is designated a Decade Volcano by the United Nations.

Geological record
Volcanic activity at Etna started about 50 % a million years ago, with eruptions happening beneath the sea from the coastline of Sicily. 300,000 years back, volcanism began occurring into the southwest associated with the present-day summit, before activity relocated towards current center 170,000 years ago. Eruptions at the moment built-up the initial major volcanic edifice, developing a strato-volcano in alternating volatile and effusive eruptions. The growth of hill ended up being periodically interrupted by significant eruptions leading to the collapse of the summit to form calderas.
Etna seen from Spot Satellite.

From about 35,000 to 15,000 years ago, Etna experienced some highly explosive eruptions, producing large pyroclastic flows which left substantial ignimbrite build up. Ash from all of these eruptions was discovered as a long way away as Rome, 800 km into north.
A crater close to the Torre del Filosofo, about 450 metres below Etna’s summit.

Thousands of years ago, the east flank of this hill experienced a catastrophic collapse, creating a huge landslide in a meeting like that seen in the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. The landslide left a big despair when you look at the region of the volcano, generally ‘Valle del Bove’ (Valley of this Ox). Research published in 2006 shows that this occurred around 6000 BC, and caused a big tsunami which left its level in several places into the eastern Mediterranean. It might probably are why that the settlement of Atlit Yam (Israel), now below sea-level, had been suddenly abandoned around the period.

The steep wall space of the Valley have actually experienced subsequent failure on many events. The strata subjected inside area wall space offer an important and simply available record of Etna’s eruptive record.

The most up-to-date collapse event in the summit of Etna is thought to have occurred about 2,000 years ago, creating what’s known as the Piano Caldera. This caldera was nearly totally filled by subsequent lava eruptions, but is nonetheless visible as a definite break in the slope regarding the mountain nearby the foot of the present-day summit cone.

Historical eruptions
Eruptions of Etna aren’t yet. Some occur in the summit, in which there are at this time (by 2008) four distinct craters – the Northeast Crater, the Voragine, the Bocca Nuova, as well as the Southeast Crater. Various other eruptions take place on the flanks, in which there are more than 300 ports, ranging in size from small holes within the surface to large craters hundreds of meters across. Summit eruptions can be highly explosive and generally are excessively spectacular, but are rarely threatening the inhabited places across the volcano. On the contrary, flank eruptions can happen down to a few hundred yards height, close to or really within the inhabited places. Many villages and little cities lie around or on cones of past flank eruptions. Since the 12 months 1600 A.D., there have been at the least 60 flank eruptions and countless summit eruptions; nearly half of these have taken place considering that the start of the twentieth century, plus the 3rd millennium has seen five flank eruptions of Etna so far, in 2001, 2002-2003, 2004-2005,2007 and 2008.

1st known record of an eruption at Etna is of Diodorus Siculus.

The Roman poet Virgil offered what was probably a first-hand information of an eruption within the Aeneid:
“ Portus ab accessu ventorum immotus et ingens ipse; sed horrificis iuxta tonat Aetna ruinis; interdumque atram prorumpit ad aethera nubem, turbine fumantem piceo et candente favilla, attollitque globos flammarum et sidera lambit; interdum scopulos avolsaque viscera montis erigit eructans, liquefactaque saxa sub auras sperm gemitu glomerat, fundoque exaestuat imo. (3.39)

“ a spreading bay is there, impregnable to any or all invading storms; and Aetna’s throat With roar of frightful damage thunders nigh. Today into the realm of light it lifts a cloud Of pitch-black, whirling smoke, and fiery dust, Shooting out globes of flame, with monster tongues That lick the stars; now huge crags of itself, Out of the bowels of hill torn, Its maw disgorges, as the molten stone Rolls screaming skyward; from nether deep The fathomless abyss tends to make ebb and flow.

In 396 BC, an eruption of Etna is thought to have thwarted the Carthaginians within their attempt to advance on Syracuse throughout the very first Sicilian War.

A particularly violent explosive (Plinian) summit eruption took place 122 BC, and caused heavy tephra falls toward southeast, such as the town of Catania, where lots of roofs folded. To help with reconstruction and working with the damaging effects of the eruption, the Roman government exempted the people of Catania from spending taxes for ten years.

Current eruptions
Etna’s 2002 eruption, photographed through the ISS.
Same, noticed in a broader industry.
Etna’s south-east crater 2006 eruption, photographed from Torre del Filosofo.

Another large lava circulation from an eruption in 1928 led to 1st (and only) destruction of a population center considering that the 1669 eruption. The eruption started on top of Etna’s northeast flank on 2 November, then brand new eruptive fissures opened at ever before reduced level down the flank of volcano. The third and most energetic of the fissures launched late on 4 November at unusually low level (1200 m above the sea-level), in a zone called Ripe della Naca. The town of Mascali, lying downslope regarding the Ripe della Naca, had been obliterated in only 2 days, with the lava destroying nearly every building. Just a church and some surrounding buildings survived when you look at the north an element of the village, called Sant’Antonino or “il quartiere”. Over the last times of the eruption, the movement interrupted the Messina-Catania railroad range and destroyed the stop of Mascali. The event had been employed by Benito Mussolini’s Fascist regime for propaganda reasons, utilizing the evacuation, aid and rebuilding functions being provided as types of fascist planning. Mascali had been reconstructed on an innovative new website, as well as its church contains the Italian fascist sign associated with the torch, put above the statue of Jesus Christ. In early November 2008, the town of Mascali commemorated the 80th anniversary of the eruption and destruction of the village with several community manifestations and conferences, where, and the like, still-living eyewitnesses of this eruptions recalled their impressions of that experience.

Other significant 20th-century eruptions took place 1949, 1971, 1981, 1983 and 1991-1993. In 1971, lava buried the Etna Observatory (built in the belated nineteenth century), destroyed the first generation associated with Etna cable-car, and really threatened a number of small villages on Etna’s east flank. In March 1981, the town of Randazzo on the northwestern flank of Etna narrowly escaped from destruction by abnormally fast-moving lava flows – that eruption ended up being extremely like the one of 1928 that ruined Mascali. The 1991-1993 eruption saw the town of Zafferana threatened by a lava flow, but effective diversion attempts saved the town with the loss of one building a hundred or so metres through the town’s margin. Initially, these types of attempts contained the building of earth obstacles built perpendicularly to the flow way; it absolutely was hoped your eruption would stop prior to the synthetic basins created behind the obstacles is totally filled. As an alternative, the eruption continued, and lava surmounted the obstacles, heading straight toward Zafferana. It was after that chose to use explosives nearby the source of the lava circulation, to interrupt a really efficient lava tube system through which the lava traveled for up to 7 km without really losing temperature and fluidity. The main surge on 23 might 1992 destroyed the lava tube and pushed the lava into a unique synthetic channel, definately not Zafferana, and it also would have taken months to re-establish a lengthy lava tube. Right after the blasting, the rate of lava emission dropped and through the remainder regarding the eruption (until 30 March 1993) the lava never advanced level near to the town again.

Following six many years (1995-2001) of abnormally intense activity at the four summit craters of Etna, the volcano produced its very first flank eruption since 1991-1993 in July-August 2001. This eruption, which involved task from seven distinct eruptive fissures mainly from the south pitch of volcano, had been a mass-media eruption, given that it took place at the level of the traveler period and various reporters and reporters were already in Italy to cover the G8 summit in Genoa. It also occurred near to among traveler places in the volcano, and thus was easy to get at. Part of the “Etna Sud” traveler location, like the arrival place of this Etna cable car, had been harmed by this eruption, which usually ended up being a rather modest-sized event for Etna requirements.

In 2002-2003, a bigger eruption put up a big line of ash that could effortlessly be viewed from room and dropped because far-away as Libya, 600 km south throughout the Mediterranean Sea. Seismic task in this eruption caused the east flanks of volcano to slip by around two metres, and many homes in the flanks of volcano experienced structural harm. The eruption in addition entirely damaged the tourist section Piano Provenzana, on northeastern flank regarding the volcano, and an element of the visitor place “Etna Spud” across the Rifugio Sapienza regarding the south flank. Footage through the eruptions was recorded by Lucasfilm and integrated into the landscape associated with the earth Mustafar when you look at the 2005 movie Star Wars Episode III: Revenge for the Sith. The Rifugio Sapienza is near the site of a cable automobile station which had formerly been damaged in the 1983 eruption; it offers today already been reconstructed.
Etna’s Sept. 2007 eruption as seen from the southeast crater ridgeline.

Following an extremely silent, sluggish and non-destructive lava outflow regarding the upper southeastern flank between September 2004 and March 2005, intense eruptions took place in the Southeast Crater in July-December 2006. These were followed by four symptoms of lava fountaining, again during the Southeast Crater, on 29 March, 11 April, 29 April and 7 might 2007. Ash emissions and Strombolian explosions started from a vent regarding the eastern region of the Southeast Crater in mid-August 2007.
House destroyed by lava regarding the slopes of Etna.

On 4 September 2007 Etna violently erupted at around 8:00 p.m. regional time, spewing lava up to 400 m in to the environment along with powerful winds that sent ash and smoke in to the fundamental cities. This Southeast Crater eruption was visible far in to the flatlands of Sicily, closing the following morning between your hours of 5 to 7 am neighborhood time. Catania-Fontanarossa Airport power down businesses at night time for protection precautions. The same paroxysm happened at night time of 23-24 November 2007, enduring for 6 hours and causing ash and lapilli falls towards the north associated with the volcano. Once again, the origin regarding the task was the Southeast Crater. After almost a year of rather minor task from the Southeast Crater and flurries of seismic task particularly in the east sector regarding the mountain, a unique powerful eruptive paroxysm occurred on belated mid-day of 10 May 2008. Due to bad weather, it absolutely was impossible to see most of the experience on vent, but a number of limbs of lava traveled down the east flank of volcano, in to the Valle del Bove despair. This most recent paroxysm lasted about 4 hours, ending regarding the evening of 10 May 2008.

A new eruption began on the early morning of 13 May 2008 instantly towards east of Etna’s summit craters, followed by a swarm greater than 200 earthquakes and considerable floor deformation in the summit location. On mid-day of the same day, a brand new eruptive fissure exposed at about 2800 m above sea-level, with some ports showing Strombolian task and emission of lava flows toward the Valle del Bove. Through the after twenty four hours the lava traveled approximately 6 kilometer toward eastern, but thereafter its advance slowed down and ended, more remote lava fronts stagnating about 3 kilometer through the closest village, Milo. Ash emissions became more frequent between 16 and 18 might and produced small but dazzling clouds, whereas the rate of lava emission showed a gradual diminution. During belated might and also the first few days of June, the experience continued at low levels, with lava flows advancing only some hundred meters from vents as of 4 June. Four times later, on 8 Summer, there clearly was a large rise in the vitality of Strombolian task and lava result price. Through the next few days, lava moves advanced up to 5 kilometer through the supply vents. In June and July, the eruption proceeded with moderate Strombolian activity from two ports at about 2800 m level, and lava advancing up to 4 kilometer eastward, remaining restricted into Valle del Bove failure despair. Task in mid-July produced loud detonations that have been really audible in several population focuses on the volcano. In late-July, explosive task waned, but lava emission continued at a rather low-rate, feeding brief lava flows that advanced level little more than 1 kilometer.

On 13 November 2008, 6 months following its beginning, the 2008 flank eruption of Etna had been continuing, at a comparatively low rate, plus it therefore became the longest of this four flank eruptions of Etna thus far within the third millennium. Past eruptions, in 2001, 2002-2003, and 2004-2005 had lasted 3 days, a few months, and half a year, correspondingly.

Uncommon attributes

In the 1970s Etna erupted smoke rings, one of the first captured occasions for this kind, which can be extremely uncommon. This happened once again in 2000.

Monte Etna
L’Etna (Mungibeddu o semplicemente ‘a Muntagna in siciliano) è un vulcano attivo che si trova sulla costa orientale della Sicilia, tra Catania age Messina. È il vulcano attivo più alto del continente europeo[1] age uno dei maggiori al mondo. La sua altezza varia nel tempo a causa delle sue eruzioni, ma si aggira attualmente sui 3.340 m. s.l.m. Il suo diametro è di circa 45 chilometri.
Un tempo era noto anche come Mongibello.

Leggende
A proposito del dio Eolo, il re dei venti, si diceva che avesse imprigionato i venti sotto le caverne dell’Etna. Secondo il poeta Eschilo, il gigante Tifone fu confinato nell’Etna age fu motivo di eruzioni. Un altro gigante, Encelado, si ribellò contro gli dei, venne ucciso e fu bruciato nell’Etna. Su Efesto o Vulcano, dio del fuoco age della metallurgia e fabbro degli dei, venne detto di aver avuto la sua fucina sotto l’Etna e di aver domato il demone del fuoco Adranos age di averlo guidato fuori dalla montagna, mentre i Ciclopi vi tenevano un’officina di forgiatura nella quale producevano le saette usate come armi da Zeus. Si supponeva che il mondo dei morti greco, Tartaro, fosse situato sotto l’Etna.

Su Empedocle, un importante filosofo presocratico e uomo politico greco del V secolo a.C., venne detto che si buttò nel cratere del vulcano, anche se in realtà sembra che sia morto in Grecia. Si dice che quando l’Etna eruttò nel 252, un anno dopo il martirio di Santa Agata, il popolo di Catania prese il velo rosso della Santa, rimasto intatto dalle fiamme del suo martirio, age né invocò il nome. Si dice che a seguito di ciò l’eruzione finì e che per questo motivo i devoti invocano il suo nome contro il fuoco e lampi.

Secondo una leggenda inglese l’anima della regina Elisabetta I d’Inghilterra ora risiede nell’Etna, a causa di un patto che lei fece col diavolo in cambio del suo aiuto durante il suo regno.

Turismo e ambiente
Il territorio del vulcano è tutto un mondo di ambienti differenti per morfologia e tipologia. Coltivato fino ai mille metri s.l.m. age fortemente urbanizzato sui versanti est age sud si presenta selvaggio e brullo soprattutto dal lato ovest dove dai mille metri in poi predominano le "sciare", specie nella zona di Bronte. Poco urbanizzato, ma di aspetto più dolce il versante nord con il predominio dei boschi al di sopra di Linguaglossa. Il versante est è dominato dall’aspetto inquietante della Valle del Bove sui margini della quale si inerpicano i fitti boschi. Al di sopra dei 1000 m, in inverno, è presente la neve che spesso dura fin quasi all’estate. Questa è raggiungibile agevolmente dai versanti sud age nord. Di conseguenza sull’Etna si trovavano anche because of stazioni sciistiche la cui particolarità è quella di poter sciare sulla neve potendo osservare il mare. Da quella Sud del Rifugio Sapienza, nel territorio di Nicolosi, è possibile ammirare tutto il golfo di Catania age la valle del Simeto. Nelle piste a Nord, quelle di Piano Provenzana in territorio di Linguaglossa, lo situation che si apre d’innanzi comprende Taormina e le coste della Calabria. Le piste di Nicolosi sono state danneggiate dall’eruzione dell’estate del 2001, quando una colata lavica ha distrutto la stazione d’arrivo della funivia ed il centro servizi passando a pochi metri dallo stesso "Rifugio Sapienza". Le piste di Piano Provenzana sono state colpite dalla colata dell’Autunno del 2002.
L’Etna visto da sud in autunno

Negli anni settanta del XX secolo le piste del versante sud,Nicolosi, sono condition protagoniste della "Tre giorni Internazionale dell’Etna" gara di sci alpino che vedeva alla partenza i grandi nomi dello sci alla fine delle gare della coppa del mondo. Poi con il passare degli anni e con l’avvento del professionismo esasperato in tutte le discipline sportive, questa gara non ha più avuto luogo.

L’Etna è anche meta ininterrotta delle visite di turisti interessati al vulcano e alle sue manifestazioni in virtù del fatto che è uno dei pochi vulcani attivi al mondo ad essere a portata di mano di chiunque avendo a supporto ogni tipo di mezzo di comunicazione per raggiungerlo. Sono presenti infatti anche guide specializzate age mezzi fuoristrada che in sicurezza portano fino ai crateri sommitali. Il circondario ha caratteristiche che ne rendono le terre ottime per produzioni agricole, grazie alla particolare fertilità dei detriti vulcanici. Los angeles zona abitata giunge fino ai 1000 m.s.l.m. mentre le zone coltivate e boschive vanno fin oltre i 1500 metri. Ampie parti delle sue pendici sono comprese nell’omonimo parco naturale che è meta di turisti amanti della natura age di un sano relax.

Volcan Etna
El Etna (37°45.304?N 14°59.715?E? / ?37.755067, 14.99525) es un volcán activo en la costa este de Sicilia, entre las provincias de Messina y Catania. Tiene alrededor de 3.322 metros de altura, a pesar de que ésta varía gracias a las constantes erupciones. Los angeles montaña es hoy en día 21,6 metros menor que en 1865. Es el gran volcán activo de Europa y la montaña más alta de Italia al sur de los Alpes. El Etna cubre un área de 1.190 km2, con una circunferencia basal de 140 kilómetros.

Hasta inicios de s XX, por lo menos, period frecuente que la población siciliana llamara Gibellu a este célebre volcán; tal denominación regional deriva de la presencia árabe en el lugar durante la edad media. En efecto, Gibellu o Gibello deriva de la palabra árabe ??? ?ébel (monte, montaña). Aún en 2005, se llama en Sicilia Gibello o Mongibelo a la montaña; quedando los angeles denominación Etna con el fin de el cono volcánico.

En la mitología griega, el Etna period el volcán en cuyo inside se situaban las fraguas de Hefesto, que trabajaba en compañía de cíclopes y gigantes. El monstruoso Tifón yacía debajo de esta montaña, lo que causaba frecuentes terremotos y erupciones de humo y lava.

Su nombre derivaba de la ninfa Etna, hija del gigante Briareo y de Cimopolia, o de Urano y Gea, que se convirtió en la deidad de este famoso volcán. Por ello, fue la juez que resolvió la disputa acerca de la posesión de Sicilia entre Deméter y Hefestos.

Uniéndose con éste último fue madre de los pálicos, los 2 dioses de sendos géiseres famosos en la isla.

Haciendo abstracción de la mitología, el nombre deriva de la palabra cananea (o del fenicio) attanu (arder) y luego de la griega aithos (con el mismo significado de arder). Durante la ocupación árabe de Sicilia en la Edad Media, el Etna fue llamado ?ébel Uhamat (Montaña de Fuego), pasando a ser llamado durante siglos por gran zona de los italianos con la palabra mixta (románica-arábiga): Mongibello.

El Etna es uno de los volcanes más activos del mundo, y está casi en constante erupción. Aunque en ocasiones puede ser muy destructivo, no está contemplado como un volcán particularmente peligroso y miles de personas viven en sus alrededores e incluso en sus faldas. Los angeles fertilidad de los angeles tierra volcánica hace que los angeles agricultura extensiva, con viñas y huertos, se extiende a lo largo de las laderas de la montaña. Debido a la reciente actividad volcánica y a su población, el Etna ha sido designado como uno de los 16 volcanes de la década por las Naciones Unidas.

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