Some cool african songs images:
???? Female Zebrafish-01_Worth US0 dollars
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Thanks for the German AtmoSAFE Company choosing this zebrafish photo named "Female Zebrafish-01_Worth 0 US dollars" on their official website homepage.
The homegape URL is " www.atmosafe.net/de.html ".
The application article is "Der Zebrafisch mag keinen Stress" and its URL is " www.atmosafe.net/de/anwendungen/bebrueten-und-zuechten/ze… "
Thanks for the Anaspec Company choosing this zebrafish photo named "Female Zebrafish-01_worth 0 US dollars" on one Z-Fish Antibodies ad in the 2011 zebrafish meeting brochure (www.union.wisc.edu/zebrafish/).
The zebrafish meeting is "4th Strategic Conference of Zebrafish Investigators" to be held January 29th – February 2nd, 2011 at Asilomar Conference Center in Pacific Grove, California.
Thanks for the Notre Dame University’s NDeRC (Notre Dame extended Research Community) choose this photo as the main photo along their BioEyes website (erc.nd.edu/blogs/bioeyes/) and thier Collaborations website (erc.nd.edu/collaborations/).
Thanks for the CBCnews Canada choosing this zebrafish photo named "Female Zebrafish-01_Worth 0 US dollars" on their official website.
The homegape URL is "http://www.cbc.ca/news".
The application article is "The eyes have it" and its URL is "http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/the-eyes-have-it-1.791619"
Thanks for the "Lin Li-Yih Lab"* supplied the zebrafish.
* Lin Li-Yih Lab, The Department of Life Science, The National Taiwan Normal University, ROC.
The following descriptions of zebrafish quote from wikipedia website (URL: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zebrafish). All Rights are belonging to "Wikipedia website".
1.Introduce: The zebrafish, Danio rerio, is a tropical freshwater fish belonging to the minnow family (Cyprinidae). It is a popular aquarium fish, frequently sold under the trade name zebra danio, and is an important vertebrate model organism in scientific research.
2.Distribution: The zebrafish is native to the streams of the southeastern Himalayan region., including the countries Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Myanmar. It arose in the Ganges region in Eastern India. It commonly inhabits streams, canals, ditches, ponds, and slow-moving to stagnant water bodies, including rice fields. Zebrafish have been introduced to parts of the United States, presumably by deliberate release or by escape from fish farms. They have also been sighted in Colombia.
3.Description: The fish is named for the five uniform, pigmented, horizontal blue stripes on the side of the body, all of which extend to the end of the caudal fin. Its shape can be described as fusiform and laterally compressed, with its mouth directed upwards. Males are torpedo shaped and have gold stripes between the blue stripes; females have a larger, whitish belly and have silver stripes instead of gold. Adult females will exhibit a small genital papilla in front of the anal fin origin. The zebrafish can grow to 6.4 centimetres (2.5 in), although it is uncommon for them to grow past 4 centimetres in captivity.
The approximate generation time for the Danio is 3–4 months. It has been observed that there must be a male present in order for ovulation and spawning of eggs to occur. Females are able to spawn as often as 2–3 days with hundreds of eggs being laid in each clutch. Upon release from the mother, developmental steps will be made, however without the presence of sperm growth will stop after the first few embryonic cleavages. Fertilized eggs will almost immediately become transparent, which is an important characteristic yielding D. rerio as a convenient research model. Development rapidly progresses, with precursors to all major organs appearing within 36 hours of fertilization. Hatching will take place anywhere from 48–72 hours post-fertilization, depending on the internal conditions of the embryo itself and the external temperature (ideally 28.5 °C). Swimming and feeding behavior are observed to occur approximately 72 hours post-fertilization. The sex of juvenile zebrafish cannot be distinguished except by dissection, and the genetic sex determinants are not clearly understood. The range of life-span for a zebrafish in captivity is around 2–3 years, although in ideal conditions, they may live up to 5 years. The zebrafish is omnivorous, and it primarily eats zooplankton, insects, and phytoplankton. It can eat a variety of foods if its main sources are not readily available.
4.Model organism for development and genetics: Zebrafish chromatophores, shown here mediating background adaptation, are studied by scientists D. rerio are a common and useful model organism for studies of vertebrate development and gene function. They may supplement higher vertebrate models, such as rats and mice. Pioneering work of George Streisinger at the University of Oregon established the zebrafish as a model organism; its importance was consolidated by large scale forward genetic screens (commonly referred to as the Tübingen/Boston screens). The scholarly journal Development devoted an issue to research using the fish in celebration of this landmark. An online database of zebrafish genetic, genomic, and developmental information, the Zebrafish Information Network (ZFIN), has been established. D. rerio is one of the few species of fish to have been flown into space.
A Zebrafish Pigment Mutant. The mutant called bleached blond was produced by insertional mutagenesis. The embryos in the picture are four days old. At the top is a wild-type embryo, below is the mutant. The mutant lacks black pigment in the melanocytes because it fails to synthesise melanin properly.
Research with D. rerio has allowed advances in the fields of developmental biology, oncology, toxicology, reproductive studies, teratology, genetics, neurobiology, environmental sciences, stem cell and regenerative medicine, and evolutionary theory. Perhaps its greatest advantages for use in the laboratory as a model system come from its now sequenced genetic code, well understood, easily observable and testable developmental behaviors, and the availability of well-characterized mutants. Zebrafish embryonic development provides advantages over other vertebrate model organisms as well. Although the overall generation time of zebrafish is comparable to that of mice, zebrafish embryos develop rapidly, progressing from eggs to larvae in under three days. The embryos are large, robust, and transparent and develop externally to the mother, characteristics which all facilitate experimental manipulation and observation. Their nearly constant size during early development facilitates simple staining techniques, and drugs may be administered by adding directly to the tank. Unfertilized eggs can be made to divide, and the two-celled embryo fused into a single cell, creating a fully homozygous embryo.
See link for pigmentation mutants of D rerio: www.nature.com/hdy/journal/v97/n3/fig_tab/6800867f5.html#…
A common reverse genetics technique is to reduce gene expression or modify splicing in zebrafish using Morpholino antisense technology. Morpholino oligonucleotides are stable, synthetic macromolecules that contain the same bases as DNA or RNA; by binding to complementary RNA sequences, they reduce the expression of specific genes. The journal Genesis devoted an issue to research using Morpholino oligos, mostly in D. rerio. Morpholino oligonucleotides can be injected into one cell of a zebrafish embryo after the 32-cell stage, producing an organism in which gene expression is reduced in only the cells descended from the injected cell. However, cells in the early embryo (<32 cells) are interpermeable to large molecules, allowing diffusion of Morpholinos between cells. A known problem with gene knockdowns in zebrafish is that, because the genome underwent a duplication after the divergence of ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned fishes, it is not always easy to silence the activity one of the two gene paralogs reliably due to complementation by the other paralog.
Despite the complications of the zebrafish genome a number of commercially available global platforms for analysis of both gene expression by microarrays and promoter regulation using ChIP-on-chip exist.
Zebrafish have the ability to regenerate fins, skin, the heart, and the brain (in larval stages). Zebrafish have also been found to regenerate photoreceptors and retinal neurons following injury. The mechanisms of this regeneration are unknown, but are currently being studied. Researchers frequently cut the dorsal and ventral tail fins and analyze their regrowth to test for mutations. This research is leading the scientific community in the understanding of healing/repair mechanisms in vertebrates.
5.Recent developments: In October 2001, researchers from the University of Oklahoma published the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of D. rerio. The length of the zebrafish mitochondrial genome is 16,596 base pairs. This is within 100 base pairs of other related species of fish, and it is notably only 18 bp longer than the goldfish (Carassius auratus) and 21 bp longer than the carp (Cyprinus carpio). The zebrafish gene order and content is identical to the common vertebrate form of mitochondrial DNA. It contains 13 protein-coding genes and a noncoding control region containing the origin of replication for the heavy strand. In between a grouping of five tRNA genes, a sequence resembling vertebrate origin of light strand replication is found. In comparing the nucleotide sequence to other vertebrates it is difficult to draw any evolutionary conclusions because it is difficult to determine as to whether base pair changes have adaptive significance.
In December 2005, a study of the golden strain identified the gene responsible for the unusual pigmentation of this strain as SLC24A5, a solute carrier that appeared to be required for melanin production, and confirmed its function with a Morpholino knockdown. The orthologous gene was then characterized in humans and a one base pair difference was found to segregate strongly between fair-skinned Europeans and dark-skinned Africans. This study featured on the cover of the academic journal Science and demonstrates the power of zebrafish as a model organism in the relatively new field of comparative genomics.
In January 2007, Chinese researchers at Fudan University raised genetically modified fish that can detect estrogen pollution in lakes and rivers, showing environmental officials what waterways need to be treated for the substance, which is linked to male infertility. Song Houyan and Zhong Tao, professors at Fudan’s molecular medicine lab, spent three years cloning estrogen-sensitive genes and injecting them into the fertile eggs of zebrafish. The modified fish turn green if they are placed into water that is polluted by estrogen.
On August 1, 2007, researchers at University College London said they had grown in the laboratory a type of adult stem cell found in the eyes of fish and mammals that develops into neurons in the retina. These cells could be injected in the eye to treat all diseases where the retinal neurons are damaged — nearly every disease of the eye, including macular degeneration, glaucoma, and diabetes-related blindness. Damage to the retina — the part of the eye that sends messages to the brain — is responsible for most cases of sight loss. The researchers studied Müller glial cells in the eyes of humans aged from 18 months to 91 years and were able to develop them into all types of neurons found in the retina. They were also able to grow them easily in the lab, they reported in the journal Stem Cells. The cells were tested in rats with diseased retinas, where they successfully migrated into the retina and took on the characteristics of the surrounding neurons. Now the team is working on the same approach in humans.
In February 2008, researchers at Children’s Hospital Boston reported in the journal Cell Stem Cell the development of a new strain of zebrafish, named Casper, with see-through bodies. This allows for detailed visualization of individual blood stem cells and metastasizing (spreading) cancer cells within a living adult organism. Because the function of many genes are shared between fish and humans, this tool is expected to yield insight into human diseases such as leukemia and other cancers.
In April 2009, Researchers at the Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi announced the sequencing of the wild-type strain of Zebrafish, complete with about 1.7 billion genetic alphabets.
Nikon AF-D 60mm F2.8 Macro
There is one biochemistry company pay our lab 0 (US dollars) to get the rights to put this photo on their website and their product fliers. 0808.2009
Jazz Paintings on fence in New Orleans
Image by denisbin
Jazz art on fence of Jackson Square New Orleans.
Some geography of New Orleans. The location and geography of New Orleans is unique in America. Most of the city is well below sea level, except for the French Quarter which was built on a natural levee of the river in the 1700s. As the city has expanded special levees, pumps and flood gates have been erected around the city. When Hurricane Katrina struck in 2005 the storm itself did damage to New Orleans but the major devastation came from the levees failing and water flooding at least 80% of the city area. It is useful to remember that 50% of New Orleans city is water and not land! Its location on the banks of the mighty Mississippi River, near the delta bayous and swamps was the raison d’être for the city. It was to control all navigation and commercial activity on the river and to provide a safe harbour as close as possible to the Gulf of Mexico. Because of its strategic location it has always been the prize for invaders during wars. The city has a tropical climate and the regions north of the city along the banks of the Mississippi were and are major sugar plantation areas, not cotton plantation areas. You have to travel upstate in Louisiana to find the cotton growing areas. This tropical climate along one of the world’s major water courses meant until recently that the area was plagued with Yellow Fever, malaria and other deadly illnesses. To the north and east of the city is Lake Pontchartrain, a huge body of water; in fact the city is bordered by water on three sides. By road the mouth of the Mississippi is over 100 miles away but this is because the river follows a circuitous route to the mouth of its delta. The city metropolitan area has a population of 1.1 million, exactly the same as the population of Adelaide. Although the population fell after Hurricane Katrina the population is now 90% of what is was before the hurricane. There is little evidence of flood damage in the areas that we will see as tourists. The French Quarter was not flooded because the founding French settlers sensibly chose a high site for their city.
Some early history of New Orleans. The city was founded in 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, a major trader in furs bought from the Indians up river. They got the local Indians, the Chitimacha to cede land to them. The Company named the city after the Duke of Orleans who was the Regent of France at that time. After the French Wars between the Indians, British, French and Spanish in America from 1756-63 the French ceded New Orleans to the Spanish. The Spanish held New Orleans from 1763 to 1801 when Napoleon defeated the Spanish and New Orleans and its territories to the west were returned to France. As Napoleon needed more funds to continue his Napoleonic Wars with Britain and others he soon (in 1803) sold New Orleans and all territories west of the Mississippi to President Jefferson for the small sum of million. West Florida, New Orleans and the west comprised over 800,000 square miles! The Louisiana Purchase covered – Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, Nth & Sth Dakota, Oklahoma & parts of Texas and Wyoming.
When the French settled New Orleans they built a trading port city of wooden buildings on the high ground along the banks of the Mississippi. The streets were named after the royal houses of France and Catholic saints, hence Bourbon Street after the Dukes of Bourbon, not the whisky. Local pine was the timber used for building the houses, often on brick pylons to raise the houses above any possible flood threat. The compact town was destroyed by two major fires during the Spanish ownership of Louisiana in 1788 and again in 1794. The city was rebuilt in brick, with wrought iron balconies in the Spanish style usually with central courtyards. So most of what we see today in the French Quarter or Vieux Carré is actually of Spanish design and from the era of Spanish building in the late 1790s. So the French Quarter is really the Spanish Quarter and the Spanish buildings include the three major public buildings of this era- the Cathedral of St. Louis, and the adjoining Cabildo and Presbytere. The first St. Louis Cathedral was built in 1781; the second in 1725; and the third in 1789. That third structure in Spanish style was almost totally rebuilt in 1850 in the style of the previous cathedral.
The Strategic Importance of New Orleans. Not long after the Americans bought New Orleans a major war broke out between England and her former American colonies. War raged from 1812-14 when the British, amongst other achievements, sailed up the Potomac River in Washington and burnt down the White House and attacked the national capital. As the port that controlled the Mississippi and the river system that went up to the British colonies in Canada the British wanted to retake New Orleans. A young American officer, Andrew Jackson (later President Andrew Jackson) led the American forces in a battle with the British. The battle of New Orleans (remember the hit song about it in 1959?) took place in January 1815. It was the final battle of the War of 1812 and despite bad odds Andrew Jackson and the Americans prevailed and won the battle. Hence the main square in New Orleans is Jackson Square with a fine statue of the later President on horseback is in the centre of the square. And again during the Civil War both the Confederates and Unionists wanted to control New Orleans. During the Antebellum period New Orleans had been a major port for the slave trade and the major slave auction centre of the American South. Louisiana declared their secession from the Union in January 1861 and the Confederates bolstered their occupation of the area. It was the link to the South’s cotton plantations up the Mississippi River Valley and its link across the Mississippi to the wealthy states of Texas, Arkansas and some secessionist counties of Missouri. The first shots were fired at Fort Sumter in April 1861. New Orleans was blockaded by the North in May 1861 showing what an important prize the city was to the Union. After two short battles in April 1862 the Union forces occupied New Orleans and split the Confederacy into two parts as it then controlled the Mississippi River too.
The Creole Culture of New Orleans. Creole culture in Louisiana is still strong. Creoles are primarily the people descended from the early French and Spanish settlers mixed with later German immigrants and African slaves. Creoles were originally white Europeans but the term later included mixed race people. When the Haitian Revolution led by slaves erupted in 1804 many French residents fled from Haiti to New Orleans with their African slaves. They reinforced the French culture of New Orleans and established their three tiered society of white Creoles, mixed race Creoles and black slaves. The mixed race Creoles were mainly fee black people and added to the free black population of New Orleans. French speakers dominated in New Orleans until 1830. But as late as 1900, 25% of residents spoke French and 75% could understand it. (250,000 Louisianans still speak French at home today.) Half the schools in New Orleans taught in French until the Civil War. In 1862 the Union occupier of the city General Butler abolished French instruction and enforced English teaching. The War made New Orleans an American city. But the Creoles did not disappear. They continued to dominate society for some time. The Creole planters along the Mississippi lived on their plantations during the hot malaria filled summers but moved to their French Quarter town houses for the cool winters. (It was the reverse in Charleston where the planters lived in Charleston in the hot summers and spent winters on their plantations.) The New Orleans winter was the time for balls and parties and the celebrations around Lent and the Mardi Gras activities, which still persist as a reminder of the French heritage of the city. The white French Creoles also often took black slave women as mistresses but unlike the white Americans they tended to give freedom to the children born from these unions. Thus New Orleans ended up with the largest number of free blacks of any Southern city in the Antebellum days. Mixed race Creoles had their own society balls and functions. Many had property and were quite wealthy in their own rights because of grants from their white Creole fathers. But their access to political and legal rights disappeared during the Jim Crow era as white Americans applied their white-black caste system on all parts of America including Louisiana. Free persons of colour were discriminated against by the Jim Crow regulations and segregation in New Orleans too. Change came with of the Civil Rights era.
south african song and dance.
Image by josette
a sidewalk chalking near the BRNG bus stop.